Part of speech: verb
Verb type: irregular suppletive verb
Present participle: gaggands
(p iddja, also gaggida) 1) to go; to walk; 2) to come
[← Prot-Germ *gangan; OE ȝanȝan, ȝonȝan (Mod E gang arch); O Fris ganga, gunga; O Sax gangan; OHG gangan; Icel ganga; cf also Prot-Germ *gēnan; OE ȝan (Mod E go); O Fris gān; O Sax gān; Dt gaan; OHG gān, gēn (Mod G gehen)]
gagga - 1 pers, sing, pres, indicat - Luk. XIV, 19; XV, 18; Jhn. VII, 33; VIII, 21, VIII, 22; XIII, 33; XIII, 36; XIV, 2; XIV, 3; XIV, 4 etc
gaggis - 2 pers, sing, pres, indicat - Matth. VIII, 19; Luk. IX, 57; Jhn. XI, 8; XIII, 36; XIV, 5; XVI, 5; Rom. XIV, 5
gaggid, gaggiþ - 3 pers, sing, pres, indicat; 2 pers, pl, imper - Matth. VIII, 9; VIII, 32; XXV, 41; XXVII, 65; Mrk. XVI, 7; Luk. III, 16; VIII, 49; X, 3; XIV, 17 etc gaggais - 2 pers, sing, pres, optat - Matth. V, 41; Mrk. VIII, 26
gaggai - 3 pers, sing, pres, optat - Luk. XIV, 27; Jhn. VII, 37; Cor. I, VII, 17
gaggam - 1 pers, pl, pres, indicat; 1 pers, pl, imper - Mrk. I, 38; XIV, 42; Jhn. XI, 7; XI, 11; XI, 15; XI, 16; XIV, 31; Cor. II, V, 7; Galat. V, 25
gaggand - 3 pers, pl, pres, indicat - Matth. XI, 5; Mrk. VII, 5; Luk. VII, 22; Galat. II, 14; Ephes. IV, 17; Philip. III, 18; Tim. II, II, 16; Skeirns. IV, 2
gaggaima - 1 pers, pl, pres, optat - Rom. XIII, 13; Ephes. II, 10
gaggaiþ - 2 pers, pl, pres, optat - Matth. IX, 13; Mrk. VI, 10; Luk. IX, 4; X, 8; Ephes. IV, 17; V, 2; V, 8; Galat. V, 16; Coloss. I, 10; IV, 5; Thessal. I, IV, 1; IV, 12
gaggands - pres.p.- Matth. XI, 4; XXVII, 66; Mrk. III, 6; VIII, 24; X, 32; XVI, 10; XVI, 12; XVI, 15; Luk. I, 6 etc
gaggats - 2 pers, dual, imper - Mrk. XI, 2; XIV, 13; Luk. XIX, 30
gaggida - 3 pers, sing, p, indicat - Luk. XIX, 12
iddja - 3 pers, sing, p, indicat- Matth. IX, 9; IX, 19; Mrk. II, 14; V, 42; VI, 56; Luk. I, 39; II, 51; IV, 30; V, 28; VII, 11 etc
iddjedum - 1 pers, pl, p, indicat - Cor. II, XII, 18
iddjedun - 3 pers, pl, p, indicat - Mrk. I, 45; II, 13; II, 15; V, 24; IX, 30; XI, 15; XI, 27; Luk. II, 3; IX, 56 etc
iddjeduþ - 2 pers, pl, p, indicat - Ephes. II, 2; Coloss. III, 7
iddjuh = iddja + -uh (vid -uh part) - Luk. VII, 6; Jhn. XVIII, 3
iddjedunuh = iddjedun + -uh (vid -uh part) - Jhn. VI, 17; XI, 31
gaggan - inf- Mrk. X, 14; Luk. VI, 1; VIII, 41; IX, 23; IX, 51; X, 1; XVIII, 16; XX, 46; Jhn. VII, 1 etc
gagg - 2 pers, sing, imper - Matth. V, 24; VI, 6; VIII, 4; VIII, 9; VIII, 13; IX, 5; IX, 6; Mrk. I, 44; II, 9; II, 11; II, 14 etc

4.6. Irregular verbs

The group of irregular verbs in Gothic is represented by a number of verbs, which reveal various peculiarities of their conjugational patterns:


briggan (to bring).

According to the structure of the stem of its pres tense, this v belongs to the str verbs of class III. Its p tense is formed by means of stem vowel gradation and the addition of the dental suffix, represented by its variant form -ta: brāhta (< *braŋxta) (he brought), brāhtedun (they brought).


gaggan (to go, walk).

According to the structure of the stem of its pres tense and the form of its p.p. (gaggans), gaggan belongs to the class of reduplicating verbs (the 3rd class weak verbs bauan, trauan are also believed to have previously been reduplicating ones [vid also 4.1.3 (c)]); in preterite, the weak form gaggida (he went) is once attested (Luk. 19:12), while usu an unrelated verbal stem: iddja (he went), iddjedun (they went) is applied. Therefore, by the type of the building of its tense forms, gaggan is a suppletive verb.


wisan (to be, exist)

is a suppletive verb. The stem *es- produces only the personal forms of pres tns, while or other forms are produced based on the verbal stem *wes-, Goth wis-, in the manner similar to that of class V strong verbs: inf wisan, p sing was, p tense pl wesum.

In the pres tns, the verbal stem *es- is represented by the ful and zero grades of ablaut. The type of conjugation is athematic.

For this verb, the forms of optative are used instead of imperative mood.

Present tense

wisan (to be, exist)
(irregular suppletive verb)

indicative mood optative mood
singular number
1st person im sijau
2nd person is sijais
3rd person ist sijai
dual number
1st person siju
plural number
1st person sijum sijaima
2nd person sijuþ sijaiþ
3rd person sind sijaina

present participle

See the paradigm of the declension of the present participle]

Preterite, past tense

indicative mood optative mood
singular number
1st person was wēsjau
2nd person wast wēseis
3rd person was wēsi
plural number
1st person wēsum wēseima
2nd person wēsuþ wēseiþ
3rd person wēsun wēseina

past participle
not attested or preserved in this verb


wiljan (to want, wish, will)

pres tense forms are built like those of optat of p tense.

Present tense

indicative mood
singular number
1st person wiljau
2nd person wileis
3rd person wili
dual number
2nd person wileits
plural number
1st person wileima
2nd person wileiþ
3rd person wileina

present participle

p tense forms are built like those of weak verbs:

Past tense

indicative mood
singular number
1st person wilda
2nd person wildēs
3rd person wilda
plural number
1st person wildēdum
2nd person wildēduþ
3rd person wildēdun

There are also attested the forms of 3 pers sing, optat wildēdi (would like/want (to)) and 2 pers pl wildēdeiþ ((if) you are willing).