Pronoun paradigms

3. Pronouns

3.1. Personal pronouns

personal pronouns, 1st person
singular plural ორობითი
nominative ik weis wit
genitive meina unsara ugkara
dative mis unsis, uns ugkis
accusative mik uns, unsis ugkis

personal pronouns, 2nd person
singular plural dual
nominative þu jus jut
genitive þeina izwara igqara
dative þus izwis igqis
accusative þuk izwis igqis

personal pronouns, 3rd person
singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative is ita si
genitive is is izos
dative imma imma izai
accusative ina ita ija
plural number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative eis ija ijos
genitive ize ize izo
dative im im im
accusative ins ija ijos

3.2. Demonstrative pronouns

singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative sa þata so
genitive þis þis þizos
dative þamma þamma þizai
accusative þana þata þo
instrumental - þē -
plural number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative þai þo þos
genitive þize þize þizo
dative þaim þaim þaim
accusative þans þo þos

3.3. Interrogative pronouns

In Gothic, like in other German languages, inter pron-s are derived from the stem *xwa-, *xwō-, have masc (ƕas (who)), neut (ƕa (what)) and fem (ƕo (who)) gender and are used only in sing:

singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative ƕas ƕa ƕo
genitive ƕis ƕis ƕizos
dative ƕamma ƕamma ƕizai
accusative ƕana ƕa ƕo
instrumental - ƕe -

The form *ƕizos (fem, Gen) is not attested in the surviving Goth sources.
The inter pron ƕarjis (who; which) is also declined like strong adjectives.

3.4. Indefinite pronouns

A number of lexical units were used in Gothic to function as indef pron-s:

(a) Pronouns ƕas, ƕa, ƕo, along with the function of inter pron-s, could also perform that of indef pron-s and were used in the sense of (somebody; something) (esp after the cj jabai (if)).

(b) In the sense of (somebody; some; something) were also used sums (masc); sum, sumata (neut), suma (fem), declined like strong adjectives.

(c) pron ƕas, combined with the part -uh formed indef pron (each, every): ƕazuh (masc); ƕah (neut); ƕoh (fem).

singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative ƕazuh ƕah ƕo
genitive ƕizuh ƕizuh -
dative ƕammeh ƕammeh -
accusative ƕanoh ƕah ƕoh

Instrumental case-form ƕeh has the meaning how; somehow, anyhow. In pl, there is attested only masc, Acc ƕanzuh.

(d) The sense of every; each was also expressed by the combination of pron ƕarjis (who; which) with the part -uh. Only sing forms were used; while the fem paradigm has only one surviving case-form: Acc ƕarjoh.

singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative ƕarjizuh ƕarjatoh -
genitive ƕarjizuh ƕarjizuh -
dative ƕarjammeh ƕarjammeh -
accusative ƕarjanoh ƕarjatoh ƕarjoh

(e) Various other combinations of pronouns, such as ƕazuh-saei, sa-ƕazuh saei were also used in the sense of every, each. izei could occur instead of saei.

(f) In Gothic the sense of indef pron nobody, no-one is expressed by means of various combinations, such as ni mannahun, ni ƕashun, ni ainshun, etc.

The indef pron ni ƕashun is attested only in the form of masc sing Nom. In the combination ni mannahun, only the component manna- is declined; besides sing Nom, there are also attested Gen form ni manshun, Dat form ni mannhun and Acc form ni mannanhun. In the combination ni ainshun only the elemet ains- undergoes declension.

singular number
masculine neuter feminine
nominative ainshun ainhun ainohun
genitive ainishun ainishun -
dative ainummehun ainummehun ainaihun
accusative ainohun ainhun ainohun

3.5. Possesive pronouns

Possesive pronouns are in fact adjectives, derived by means of the Prot-Germ suff *-īna- (Goth -ein-) in sing, and the suff *era- (Goth -ar-) in pl; cf meins (my), þeins (2 pers sing) (your, thy), seins (his, her its; their); unsar (our), izwar (2 pers pl) (your); there is also attested the form of dual poss pron ig(g)qar (of you two) – iggqarai (fem sing Dat).

Possesive pronouns are declined the same way as the strong adjectives. e.g. Nom sing masc meins, neut mein or meinata, fem meina. neut poss pron-s unsar and izwar in Nom and Acc cases have only short forms (that is, they do not have the neut sing ending -ata in these two cases).

3.6. Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns in Gothic are derived by means of the addition of the part -ei to the demonstrative pronouns: saei (who, that, which) (masc), þatei (which; that) (neut) and soei (who, that, which) (fem). This derived form is declined in the same way as the plain demonstr pron, with the part -ei being added to the case endings of the demonstr pron in question. cf masc, Nom saei, Gen þizei, Dat þammei, Acc þanei, etc; fem, Nom soei, Gen þizozei, Dat þizaiei, Acc þoei etc rel pron-s saei, þatei, soei are often used in Gothic, introducing subordinate clauses.

Alongside masc sing Nom saei, Gothic often uses the form izei (< pers pron is (3 pers, sing, masc) + part -ei). izei was often used in subordinate clauses as a kind of petrified relative pronoun; cf þaim izei qimand at izwis ((those) who come to you( (Matth. 7:15); niu mahta sa izei uslauk augona þamma blindin ... (could not this man, who opened the eyes of the blind …) (Jhn. 11:37). Similarly, alongside rel pron soei (fem sing Nom) there is used rel pron sei (< pers pron si (3 pers, sing, fem) + part -ei). Remarkably, sei is used exclusively in Nom, sing.

3.7. Reflexive pronouns

singular number
genitive seina
dative sis
accusative sik

Derived from the pronominal stem *se-.

3.8. Adjectival pronouns

Adjectival pronouns aljis (other, another); anþar (other, another, second), silba (self) and sama (same) are treated in our dictionary and chrestomathy as adjectives.

aljis and anþar are declined like strong adjectives, while silba and (sa) sama – like weak ones.