- 1. Nouns
- 2. Adjectives
- 3. Pronouns
- 3.1. Personal pronouns
- 3.2. Demonstrative pronouns
- 3.3. Interrogative pronouns
- 3.4. Indefinite pronouns
- 3.5. Possesive pronouns
- 3.6. Relative pronouns
- 3.7. Reflexive pronouns
- 3.8. Adjectival pronouns
- 4. Verbs
3.1. Personal pronouns
|personal pronouns, 1st person|
|personal pronouns, 2nd person|
|personal pronouns, 3rd person|
3.2. Demonstrative pronouns
3.3. Interrogative pronouns
In Gothic, like in other German languages, inter pron-s are derived from the stem *xwa-, *xwō-, have masc (ƕas (who)), neut (ƕa (what)) and fem (ƕo (who)) gender and are used only in sing:
The form *ƕizos (fem, Gen) is not attested in the surviving Goth sources.
The inter pron ƕarjis (who; which) is also declined like strong adjectives.
3.4. Indefinite pronouns
A number of lexical units were used in Gothic to function as indef pron-s:
(a) Pronouns ƕas, ƕa, ƕo, along with the function of inter pron-s, could also perform that of indef pron-s and were used in the sense of (somebody; something) (esp after the cj jabai (if)).
(b) In the sense of (somebody; some; something) were also used sums (masc); sum, sumata (neut), suma (fem), declined like strong adjectives.
(c) pron ƕas, combined with the part -uh formed indef pron (each, every): ƕazuh (masc); ƕah (neut); ƕoh (fem).
(d) The sense of every; each was also expressed by the combination of pron ƕarjis (who; which) with the part -uh. Only sing forms were used; while the fem paradigm has only one surviving case-form: Acc ƕarjoh.
(e) Various other combinations of pronouns, such as ƕazuh-saei, sa-ƕazuh saei were also used in the sense of every, each. izei could occur instead of saei.
(f) In Gothic the sense of indef pron nobody, no-one is expressed by means of various combinations, such as ni mannahun, ni ƕashun, ni ainshun, etc.
The indef pron ni ƕashun is attested only in the form of masc sing Nom. In the combination ni mannahun, only the component manna- is declined; besides sing Nom, there are also attested Gen form ni manshun, Dat form ni mannhun and Acc form ni mannanhun. In the combination ni ainshun only the elemet ains- undergoes declension.
3.5. Possesive pronouns
Possesive pronouns are in fact adjectives, derived by means of the Prot-Germ suff *-īna- (Goth -ein-) in sing, and the suff *era- (Goth -ar-) in pl; cf meins (my), þeins (2 pers sing) (your, thy), seins (his, her its; their); unsar (our), izwar (2 pers pl) (your); there is also attested the form of dual poss pron ig(g)qar (of you two) – iggqarai (fem sing Dat).
Possesive pronouns are declined the same way as the strong adjectives. e.g. Nom sing masc meins, neut mein or meinata, fem meina. neut poss pron-s unsar and izwar in Nom and Acc cases have only short forms (that is, they do not have the neut sing ending -ata in these two cases).
3.6. Relative pronouns
Relative pronouns in Gothic are derived by means of the addition of the part -ei to the demonstrative pronouns: saei (who, that, which) (masc), þatei (which; that) (neut) and soei (who, that, which) (fem). This derived form is declined in the same way as the plain demonstr pron, with the part -ei being added to the case endings of the demonstr pron in question. cf masc, Nom saei, Gen þizei, Dat þammei, Acc þanei, etc; fem, Nom soei, Gen þizozei, Dat þizaiei, Acc þoei etc rel pron-s saei, þatei, soei are often used in Gothic, introducing subordinate clauses.
3.7. Reflexive pronouns
Derived from the pronominal stem *se-.
3.8. Adjectival pronouns
Adjectival pronouns aljis (other, another); anþar (other, another, second), silba (self) and sama (same) are treated in our dictionary and chrestomathy as adjectives.